John Ronald Reuel Tolkien,ￂﾠCBEￂﾠ(/ￋﾈtﾒlkiￋﾐn/ￂﾠtol-keen;[a]ￂﾠ3 January 1892ￂﾠ￢ﾀﾓ 2 September 1973) was an English writer, poet,ￂﾠphilologist, and university professor, best known as the author of the classicￂﾠhigh-fantasyￂﾠworksￂﾠThe Hobbit,ￂﾠThe Lord of the Rings, andￂﾠThe Silmarillion.
He served as theￂﾠRawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxonￂﾠand Fellow ofPembroke College, Oxford, from 1925 to 1945 andￂﾠMerton Professor of English Language and Literatureￂﾠand Fellow ofￂﾠMerton College, Oxfordￂﾠfrom 1945 to 1959.ￂﾠHe was at one time a close friend ofￂﾠC. S. Lewisￂﾠ-ￂﾠthey were both members of the informal literary discussion group known as theￂﾠInklings. Tolkien was appointed aￂﾠCommander of the Order of the British Empireￂﾠby QueenￂﾠElizabeth IIￂﾠon 28 March 1972. After Tolkien's death, his sonￂﾠChristopherￂﾠpublished a series of works based on his father's extensive notes and unpublished manuscripts, includingￂﾠThe Silmarillion. These, together withￂﾠThe HobbitￂﾠandￂﾠThe Lord of the Ringsￂﾠform a connected body of tales, poems, fictional histories, invented languages, and literary essays about a fantasy world calledￂﾠArda, andￂﾠMiddle-earthￂﾠwithin it. Between 1951 and 1955, Tolkien applied the termￂﾠlegendariumￂﾠto the larger part of these writings.ￂﾠￂﾠ
While many other authors had published works of fantasy before Tolkien,ￂﾠthe great success ofￂﾠThe HobbitￂﾠandￂﾠThe Lord of the Ringsￂﾠled directly toￂﾠa popular resurgence of the genre. This has caused Tolkien to be popularly identified as the "father" of modern fantasy literature -ￂﾠor, more precisely, of high fantasy. In 2008,ￂﾠThe Timesￂﾠranked him sixth on a list of "The 50 greatest British writers since 1945".ￂﾠForbesￂﾠranked him the 5th top-earning "dead celebrity" in 2009. - Wikipedia