Ivan Ilyich Mozzhukhin (Russian: Иван Ильич Мозжухин, Ivan Il'ič Mozžuchin) (September 26 [O.S. October 8,] 1889—January 18, 1939) was a leading Russian-French silent film actor.
Mozzhukhin was born in Penza, Russia and studied law at Moscow State University. In 1910 he left academic life to join a troupe of traveling actors from Kiev, with which he toured for a year, gaining experience and a reputation for dynamic stage presence. Upon returning to Moscow, he launched his screen career with the 1911 adaptation of Tolstoy's The Kreutzer Sonata. He also starred in A House in Kolomna (1913, after Pushkin), Pyotr Chardynin directed drama Do You Remember? opposite the popular Russian ballerina Vera Karalli (1914), Nikolay Stavrogin (1915, after Dostoyevsky's The Devils a/k/a The Possessed), The Queen of Spades (1916, after Pushkin) and other adaptations of Russian classics.
Mozzhukhin's most lasting contribution to the theoretical concept of film as image is the legacy of his own face in recurring representation of illusory reactions seen in Lev Kuleshov's psychological montage experiment which demonstrated the Kuleshov Effect. In 1918, the first full year of the Russian Revolution,